Tuesday, January 02, 2007

War is Inevitable

Danial Kahneman and Jonathan Renshon have written a nice article in Foreign Policy outlining how psychological biases lead us to favor hawkish positions over dovish ones. Specifically, they argue:
we constructed a list of the biases uncovered in 40 years of psychological research, we were startled by what we found: All the biases in our list favor hawks. These psychological impulses—only a few of which we discuss here—incline national leaders to exaggerate the evil intentions of adversaries, to misjudge how adversaries perceive them, to be overly sanguine when hostilities start, and overly reluctant to make necessary concessions in negotiations. In short, these biases have the effect of making wars more likely to begin and more difficult to end.
I recommend reading the whole thing if only to heighten your awareness of several interesting types of bias in our decision making.

Given its relevance for current discussion, let me highlight just one of their examples here -- aversion to cutting one's losses:
Imagine, for example, the choice between:

Option A: A sure loss of $890

Option B: A 90 percent chance to lose $1,000 and a 10 percent chance to lose nothing.

In this situation, a large majority of decision makers will prefer the gamble in Option B, even though the other choice is statistically superior. People prefer to avoid a certain loss in favor of a potential loss, even if they risk losing significantly more. When things are going badly in a conflict, the aversion to cutting one’s losses, often compounded by wishful thinking, is likely to dominate the calculus of the losing side. This brew of psychological factors tends to cause conflicts to endure long beyond the point where a reasonable observer would see the outcome as a near certainty. Many other factors pull in the same direction, notably the fact that for the leaders who have led their nation to the brink of defeat, the consequences of giving up will usually not be worse if the conflict is prolonged, even if they are worse for the citizens they lead.

U.S. policymakers faced this dilemma at many points in Vietnam and today in Iraq. To withdraw now is to accept a sure loss, and that option is deeply unattractive. The option of hanging on will therefore be relatively attractive, even if the chances of success are small and the cost of delaying failure is high.

While they offer different rationaliations, this sounds to me like what is really driving the supporters of the McCain Doctrine.

Comments:
شركة الصفرات تنظيف الكنب بالرياض
شركة تنظيف خزانات بالدمام
شركة تنظيف المنازل
شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بجازان
افضل شركة رش مبيدات بمكة
شركة مكافحة الحشرات بمكة
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف السجاد بالرياض
يبدء الفريق بتنظيف الواجهات بعناية فائقة وجيدة وبعد الانتهاء من عملية التنظيف وتفحص العميل للعمل يقوم الفريق باعطاء العميل شهادة ضمان وايضا تقدم الشركة متابعة دورية

وهنا يا عزيزى العميل قد وصلنا لنهاية موضوعنا عن شركة تنظيف الواجهات بالدمام, وهذا بعد ان قمت بتوضيح كل شى عن الشركة ولو اردت الاستفسار عن اى شى او حل اى مشكلة تواجهك بالنسبة لتنظيف واجهات زجاج وحجر بالدمام يجب عليك التواصل مع شركة وادى الرياض على الرقم الموحد فى الدمام

كلمات تسهل عليك البحث عن الشركة على الانترنت
شركة وادى الرياض

شركة الصفرات لمكافحة الحشرات بالرياض
 
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